Medical engineering is a discipline that combines engineering and medical science to develop technologies and tools to improve the quality of medical equipment. Medical engineering is a field of research and development in medicine that focuses on designing, developing, and maintaining medical equipment. On the other hand, medical engineering is also helpful in designing, developing, and implementing medical systems and devices to diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases.
Medical engineering has become increasingly important in recent years due to its ability to create better solutions for patient care. This has helped to improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and prevention of diseases. Medical engineering also plays a vital role in developing new therapies for complex diseases such as cancer or Alzheimer’s. Medical engineering has revolutionized medical equipment and care by providing more accurate diagnoses, treatments, monitoring systems, and preventive measures. Its importance will increase with the development of new technologies that can further improve patient care.
Medical engineering allows us to develop more efficient and effective medical devices that can be used to diagnose diseases and treat and monitor patients more efficiently. This has helped reduce the time doctors spend on diagnosing and treating patients. In addition, it allows us to develop more accurate and practical diagnostic tools that can help diagnose diseases earlier. Medical engineering is essential to modern medical care because it makes treatment and prevention easier and more convenient for doctors. Therefore, expanding this science in today’s world is very important for medical communities.
Medical engineering is divided into biomaterials, biomechanics, and bioelectronics.
In this trend, the materials used in medical equipment are examined and studied. Among this equipment, we can mention the platinum used in the human body. Considering that these parts must stay in the human body for a long time, what materials are used in them is very important. Because it is impossible to replace this equipment many times, these types of equipment must have sufficient resistance and quality in terms of corrosion and wear.
In biomechanics, the design and construction of mechanical equipment and devices used in medicine are discussed. The structure of equipment such as hands and feet, artificial hearts, and various instruments used in surgery or patient transfer are investigated and developed in this direction. This field uses mechanical engineering, construction, and production sciences.
In this trend, like the biomechanics trend, the manufacturing of medical equipment and devices is discussed with the difference that the electronic and magnetic parts of the structures are investigated and developed. In this field, electrical and electronic engineering and computer sciences are used.
CFD analysis in medical engineering
Fluid phenomena that are investigated in medical engineering are among the most complex fluid phenomena because most of the fluid regimes in the human body must be analyzed in an unsteady manner, such as the blood flow inside the heart or veins, which is pulsating and reciprocating, or the flow of inhalation and exhalation in the lungs, which must be simulated unsteady. In addition, the physics of fluid flows in the body can be very complex. Most of these currents have severe turbulence and, in some cases, chemical reactions.
On the other hand, blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, which adds to the complexity of these flows. CFD can help a lot in identifying and analyzing these flows. In the following, some cases of the application of CFD in medical engineering are introduced.
STRUCTURE AND FLUID INTERACTION
The interaction of structure and fluid is one of the most widely used physics inside the human body. The blood flow inside the vessels puts pressure on the vessel walls; due to this pressure, the vessel walls move and expand. On the other hand, this interaction can be simulated in CFD, which is called the FSI method for short. Analyzing this phenomenon can be very useful because it is possible to predict the rupture of the vessel wall in cases where the vessel is partially closed, and a lot of pressure is applied to its wall. FSI is not limited to the blood flow inside the vessels. The phenomenon of urinary tract blockage by kidney stones is also one of these problems, and CFD can be used to recognize and analyze this case.
Today, medical engineering science has made significant progress using artificial organs instead of natural body parts. Such as the artificial heart transplant, which gives people a new life by placing it in place of the damaged heart in the human body. On the other hand, we need to ensure its proper functioning before the heart transplant operation. CFD can help us with this task. We can optimize the design of manufactured equipment by simulating heart valves. Also, any artificial organ transplantation requires the transplantation of related vessels in that area. That CFD can help us in doing this job properly.
In addition, with the help of CFD, it is possible to make patients more comfortable. By thermal analysis of the equipment used to maintain the patient, such as beds or devices installed on the patient, a more optimal design can be made for more comfort The patient considered.
DETERMINATION OF OCCLUSIVE PRESSURE
Also, CFD can be used as a diagnostic tool to determine the occlusion pressure at which stent placement is required. From the medical imaging data provided for the simulation, the exact pressure drop during the occlusion can be obtained without the need for a manometer.
FLUID FLOW IN THE LUNG
Asthma is a disease in which the airways in the lungs become narrow and swollen, making it difficult for the patient to breathe. With CFD, it is possible to simulate the flow in the lung and investigate this phenomenon and ways to treat it.
In addition, with the spread of the coronavirus in the world, research on the function and how this virus enters the lungs has become more important. With CFD, you can simulate the coronavirus and how it moves and spreads in the lungs. In general, with CFD, you can track the movement of particles, including all viruses and dust, in the respiratory tract and lungs. It can be vital for medical engineers in examining the function of respiratory tracts, and it can help them in the optimal design of life support systems such as various types of breathing masks.
AIR CONDITIONING OF HOSPITAL ROOMS
Air conditioning of buildings is very important in all the places where people travel and are present. On the other hand, the importance of air conditioning in hospitals is much higher than in other places because sick people with weaker immune systems are in the hospital. Therefore, air conditioning in patient waiting rooms and operating rooms is very important for doctors. In addition, the possibility of spreading various diseases and viruses in hospitals is much higher than in other public places, doubling the importance of proper air conditioning systems in hospitals.
CFD plays an essential role in designing and optimizing these air conditioning systems. With the help of CFD, it is possible to track the spread of viruses in places where patients are present and provide a suitable solution to prevent the further spread of viruses.